Compulsory Schooling by Sex

My previous posts focused on the aggregate school attendance and literacy rates for whites before and after state century compulsory schooling laws were enacted. When aggregates fail to deviate from trend after a law is passed, the natural next step is to examine the sub groups.

How did attendance rates differ by sex before and after compulsory school attendance? I’ll illustrate a plausible story. Prior to law enactments, boys attended more school because girls were needed to perform domestic duties and the expectations for female education was lower. As a result, boys had higher literacy rates due to higher school attendance. After law enactments, both girls and boys attended school more and the difference between their attendance rates is eliminated. Similarly, literacy rates converge and differences are eliminated. In short, the story is consistent with an oppressed – or at least disadvantaged – position for girls that was corrected by compulsory schooling.

Formally, the hypotheses are:

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